Goddesses, Whores, Wives, & Slaves, Sarah B. Pomeroy

Goddeses, Whores, Wives, & Slaves, Sarah B. PomeroyGoddesses, Whores, Wives, & Slaves: Women in Classical Antiquity by Sarah B. Pomeroy

First Published: 1975
265 including notes & index (paperback)
Form: Non-Fiction, History, Ancient History, Women’s History

Rating: 4/54/54/54/54/5

What did women do in ancient Greece and Rome? Did Socrates’ wife Xanithippe ever hear his dialogues on beauty and truth? How many women actually read the histories of Herodotus and Thucydides? When pagan goddesses were as powerful as the gods, why was the status symbol of women generally so low? Why, in traditional histories, is half the population effectively invisible?

This unique and important book spans a period of 1500 years – from the fall of Troy to the death of Constantine. It examines all the available evidence – literary and archaeological – and reconstructs the lives of women from all classes of society.

My last couple of forays into non-fiction historical writing have been kind of disappointing, three-star affairs. This book, however – whether it’s the more academic tone or simply the subject matter – I really enjoyed. First published in the 70’s it probably contains some disputed or out-of-date ideas and evidence by now, but it was one of (if not ‘the’) first academic texts to thoroughly examine women’s roles in Ancient Greece and Rome. So, as a woman who is interested in Ancient Greek and Rome, and who gets irritated with 50% of the worlds population being treated as unimportant – and sometimes completely forgotten –  by history textbooks*, I had to read.

And it’s a very interesting read. Perhaps a little dry in places,  I preferred that to an overly informal tone and I have read plenty much, much, drier – so I think this book probably got the balance about right for me. It’s well footnoted (always a plus, even if I don’t read every citation I like to know they are they in case I ever do want to check out the original source) but, most of all, the subject matter is really interesting. The book examines female roles from Ancient Greece – predominantly Athens as that’s where most of the litterer and archaeological evidence is for but also Sparta and other city states which were generally lot more favourable towards women’s rights than ‘the birthplace of democracy’ was. From the more passive roles in Classical Greece it then moves through the Hellenistic period towards ancient Rome, where women, although second-class citizens, were considerably more free.

As someone who is more interested with Ancient Greek literature and legends than the ins and outs of city state politics (and who is less interested in Rome than Greece) I found the early chapters; discussing the iconography and roles of Greek Goddesses, the portrayal of women in Homer, and the way women were depicted in Classical tragedy and comedy, more interesting and more accessible than some of the chapters based more on the historical ‘facts’. But that’s a personal preference, and I do think Pomeroy gives enough context in this book that you don’t have to be an expert on the politics of ancient Athens or Rome to understand it.

Although the blurb asks many questions, Pomeroy avoids giving too many answers in the book. The evidence, both literary and archaeological, is sparse and fragmentary for anything to do with how the less visible classes of Greeks and Romans lived. The literary evidence is almost entirely written by educated men and most histories of the period and analysis on the archaeological evidence has been done by men too. So often, rather than give a definitive answer, Pomeroy will promote a number of theories that both she and others have come up with. the only one of these I really couldn’t stand was when she mentions the Freudian Psychoanalytical approach to examine why male Greek playwrights wrote abut women in the way they did. I guess it was the 70s, but many Freudian ideas are now no longer regarded as sound in actual psychology so they need to start getting the fuck out of disciplines like History already. While there’s nothing, in theory, wrong with psychoanalysis and examining how a person’s childhood shapes the person they become, straight up Freudian psychoanalysis is full of all sorts of misogyny and bollocks and just needs to die.

Over all, though, a very interesting and informative book. A lot of the Greek stuff I was at least passingly familiar with from A level Classics and First-Year Ancient History modules, but there were several ways of looking and interpreting things (such as the case for female primogeniture in Homer and the Troy myth) that somehow I’d missed myself and had never been mentioned by my teachers, so that was really interesting for me in a really geeky way. Also I know shamefully little about  Roman history beyond the bits everyone knows: ‘gladiators!’ ‘The occupation of Britain!’ ‘Baths!’ ‘Pompey!” and ‘Ripping off the Greek Gods, giving them stupid names and stealing their myths!’ – so the chapters on Roman society were really informative as well. And I’m glad to see that Roman women weren’t treated quite so badly as the poor old Athenians were. Seriously, Athens was a shit place to live if you were a girl.

From the look of Amazon, most of Pomeroy’s works now seem to be out of print or really expensive, which is a shame. But if I ever spot one going cheap in a second-hand bookshop I will probably pick it up. I thought this was a very well written book that got the balance right between not patronising people familiar with the time frame and not alienating those who weren’t. Also, if anyone here is taking AS/A level Classic Civs, I would really recommend reading the chapters on Homer and the Greek tragedies. I kind of wish I had.



*The introduction here contains the shocking examples of history books where ‘women’ was not included in the index or that stated the only two unenfranchised classes in Greece were ‘resident aliens’ and ‘slaves’, conveniently forgetting that no women of any social class in Greece were enfranchised either.



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Filed under Non-Fiction, Reviews

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